‘Johann Sebastian Bach's Fantasia and Fuga in G minor’, in: The Organ Yearbook 45 (2016), 133-167
The Fantasia and Fuga in G minor forms one of Bach’s most famous compositions. However, there is actually no primary evidence that Bach himself did pair these two outstanding organ pieces. This central question, along with related ones such as origin, form, and dating, is adressed anew in this article. First, fantasia and fugue are subjected to separate, detailed analyses and background scrutiny. On this basis, by unraveling the highly idiosyncratic features of both the fantasia and the fugue, the mystery of their pairing can be solved. By all means, they must be considered a profound tribute to the great tradition of Hamburg organ art.
‘"Un homme très-rare sur les espinettes"’, in: Het Clavecimbel 23/2 (September 2016), 4-9.
Schets van leven en werk van Johann Jacob Froberger (1616-1667) naar de huidige stand van het onderzoek, met een overzicht van de met zekerheid echte suites en tombeau's.
‘Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach en het clavecimbel’, in: Het Clavecimbel 22/1 (Mei 2015), 4-12 and Musical supplement.
An article (in Dutch) on the relative importance of the harpsichord in Carl Philip Emanuel's life, in particular in connection with the (close) relationship to his father. The role of the harpsichord with regard to his immense keyboard oeuvre seems to be both greater and more precisely definiable than was previously thought. An English translation is in preparation.
‘Franz Tunder, de 'Abend-Musicken' en de Noord-Duitse Koraalfantasia’, in: Muziek & Liturgie 83/6 (December 2014), 5-8; 84/1 (februari 2015), 28-31.
An overview of Franz Tunder's life and work, with particular emphasis on the chorale fantasias - his most important contribution to the organ repertoire.
‘De achtergrond van Sweelinck's kleine orgel in de Oude Kerk’ in: Het Sweelinck Monument Deel IV B: De orgel en klavecimbelwerken (II), ed. Harry van der Kamp (Heidelberg: Glossa, 2014), 81-94.
Scholarly attention in relation to Sweelinck's organ music has traditionally focussed on the large west-end organ of the Amsterdam Oude Kerk. However, it is likely that the small organ, an ingeniously designed and no doubt musically very rewarding and unique concept, was the main recipient of this seminal corpus of organ music. An English translation is in preparation.
‘Orlando Gibbons's Keyboard Music: The Continental Perspective’, in: Networks of Music and Culture in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries. A Collection of Essays in Celebration of Peter Philips's 450th Anniversary, ed. David J. Smith and Rachelle Taylor (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), 157-168.
There is a documentary indication (first revealed by Thurston Dart) that Orlando Gibbons in all likelihood paid a prolonged visit to the Continent - in particular the Northern Netherlands - in the spring of 1613. There is secondary evidence which seems to substantiate this visit, namely some mutual influencing between Gibbons and Sweelinck and his school, as is apparent from a number of specific harpsichord pieces. It can also be shown that the year 1613 marked a turning point in Gibbons's development as a (keyboard) composer.
‘Mein junges Leben hat ein Endt: Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck als Musicus Poeticus’ in: Het Sweelinck Monument Deel IV A: De orgel en klavecimbelwerken (I), ed. Harry van der Kamp (Heidelberg: Glossa, 2013), 56-69.
As is confirmed by his 1606 portrait, Sweelinck stood firmly in a rhetorical, humanistic tradition of playing and composing music. As an example of how he applied these principles, I selected his variations on the valedictory song Mein junges Leben hat ein Endt. It shows that, apart from its sustained inspiration immediately evident to any listener, it is carefully planned on several levels at once, thus achieving an in-depth rendering of the meaning of the song and explaining something of the magic of this justly celebrated keyboard piece.
‘Zur Umfang des erhaltenen Orgelwerks von Wilhelm Friedemann Bach’ in: Wilhelm Friedemann Bach und die protestantische Kirchenkantate nach 1750, ed. Wolfgang Hirschman and Peter Wollny (Berlin: Ortus Musikverlag, 2012), 391-412.
The organ music of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710-1784) has thus far received considerable attention, above all visible in the form of no less than four so-called complete editions (Biggs/Weston 1947; Brandts-Buys c1955; De Nys c1960; Fedtke 1968). However, none of them solves the source and style critical issues at stake. On the one hand, there are several thorny attribution problems to be met, on the other, some organ works of the wider Bach transmission can be fruitfully associated with him. The article thus demonstrates the authenticity of the so called "IV Fugen" (which includes the celebrated triple Fugue Fk 36) and shows that several items in the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV 568, 591, 716, 897/2 and, especially so, 534) make more sense when seen as forming part of Friedemann's oeuvre.
‘Zur Echtheit der Johann Christoph Bach (1642-1703) zugeschriebenen Clavierwerke’, in: Bach-Jahrbuch 96 (2010), 217-248.
Discusses the small surviving corpus of keyboard music attributable to the Eisenach organist Johann Christoph Bach (1642-1703), which is riddled with intricate problems of transmission and authenticity. While being able to confirm in more detail the authenticity of the four major keyboard pieces I edited in 2002, the discussion has been widened considerably. His great-nephew Johann Sebastian was a keen admirer of his music, and the transmission of Johann Christoph's extant music went largely through his hands. From this perspective a few problematic works from the BWV can tentatively be brought into connection with the Eisenach organist - most importantly so the Sarabanda con partitis in C Major BWV 990.
‘Bachs Toccata's voor het clavecimbel, in het bijzonder de Toccata in fis-klein (BWV 910)’, in: Het Clavecimbel 17/1 (Mei 2010), 11-16.
In spite of the - quite justified - fame of the four organ toccatas, it is important to realize that Bach wrote more specimens of the genre for harpsichord. The specific place of these seven masterful pieces in his oeuvre is assessed, and two toccatas with an especially strong North German flavour are discussed: briefly so the Toccata in G minor (BWV 915), and more extensively the one in the rather exotic key of F-sharp minor (BWV 910), which reveals itself as a particularly clear example of a composition according to the rules of the North German Stylus phantasticus.
‘Bachs Visioen’, in: De geheimen van de Matthäus-Passion, ed. Pieter Dirksen (Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Balans, 2010), 11-17.
Een biografisch essay, met de Matthäus-Passion als het in meerdere opzichten centrale 'opus' van Bach.
‘"Mit vielerlei Instrumenten auf das künstlichste zu musiciren". Over stijl en instrumentatie van de Matthäus-Passion’, in: De geheimen van de Matthäus-Passion, ed. Pieter Dirksen (Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Balans, 2010), 33-43.
Een inleidende studie over verschillende algemene aspecten van de Matthäus-Passion.
‘Zur geistlichen Vokalmusik Nicolaus Adam Struncks’, in: Schütz-Jahrbuch 31 (2009), 61-81.
Although famous in his own day as a virtuoso on both violin and keyboard as well as a composer of operas, regretfully little of the output of Nicolaus Adam Strunck (1640-1700) remains. The most substantial group is formed by the sacred concerti, which includes one of the real masterpieces of seventeenth century North German sacred music - the chorale cantata 'Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ'. The article provides an overview of the extant corpus and discusses aspects of style, form, authenticity and chronology.
‘J.S. Bach und die Tradition der Choralpartita’, in: Bach und die deutsche Tradition des Komponierens, Wirklichkeit und Ideologie. Festschrift Martin Geck zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. Reinmar Emans & Wolfram Steinbeck (Dortmunder Bachforschungen, Bd. 9; Witten: Klangfarben-Verlag, 2009), 39-48.
The chorale partita, a quintessentially Thuringian genre, was cultivated by Bach only in his youth. While modelling his partitas after the imaginative examples of Georg Böhm, Bach was keen on forming convincing variation cycles with, above all, a substantial 'finale'. However, the fact that the chorale partita is constructed from short movements as well as the dichotomy harpsichord/organ present in this genre proved irreconcilable with his ever developing sense of form and instrumental differentiation. He therefore abandoned the chorale partita altogether as early as c.1712.
‘Johann Jacob Froberger en de vroege Franse clavecinistes’, in: Het Clavecimbel 16/1 (Mei 2009), 5-8.
There is still much uncertainty about the origins of the French harpsichord suite. This article speculates about the possible role of Johann Jacob Froberger (1616-1667) in this process; he might have been showing his French colleagues how to effectively adapt the language of the French lutenists to the harpsichord. An expanded English version of this article is in preparation
‘J.S. Bach's Violin Concerto in G Minor’, in: Bach Perspectives 7: J.S. Bach's Concerted Ensemble Music: the Concerto, ed. Gregory Butler (University of Illinois Press, 2008), 21-54.
It has been already demonstrated before that Bach's Harpsichord Concerto in F Minor BWV 1056, though clearly a transcription like all of the harpsichord concertos, does not go back to a single work but was assembled from movements from (at least) two different concertos. The middle movement thus does derive from a concerto whose outer movements survive as the two sinfonias of Cantata BWV 35. Though the unity of the fast movements of BWV 1056 has been repeatedly questioned as well, their form, length and content proves them beyond doubt to stem from a single model, as my analysis demonstrates. This lost concerto must have been a Violin Concerto in G Minor, a highly sophisticated piece composed at the very end of Bach's Cothen period. Its original middle movement in all probablity survives in the form of the six-bar fragment BWV Anh. I/2 - a Siciliano in B-flat Major - and must thus for the greater part be considered lost.
‘Constantijn Huygens en het clavecimbel’, in: Het Clavecimbel 15/1 (Mei 2008), 9-13.
Het clavecimbel was niet het hoofdinstrument van de uiterst veelzijdige Constantijn Huygens (1596-1687) - dat was ongetwijfeld de luit en aanverwanten -, maar als een aristocratisch solo-instrument bij uitstek oefende het toch een grote aantrekkingskracht op hem uit. Enkele hartsvriendinnen van hem speelden het, hij kende verschillende beroemde clavecinisten zoals Chambonnières en Froberger persoonlijk, en hij liet de Antwerpse clavecimbelbouwer Johannes Couchet twee instrumenten bouwen.
‘Eine wenig bekannte Quelle zur Aufführungspraxis bei Georg Friedrich Händel’, in: Händel-Jahrbuch 2007, 271-288.
Around 1738 the famous British clock maker Charles Clay made two clock organs which have been preserved; they are known as the ‘Braamcamp clock’ and the ‘Windsor Castle clock’ respectively. The rolls of these clocks each contain ten pieces, the majority of which can be shown to derive from music by Georg Friedrich Handel. Although it is not known whether the arrangements were made by Handel himself, it is likely that he actually composed and/or made arrangements for this exotic musical instrument, as is shown by the autographs of HWV 600 (dated 1738!) and 578 as well as the copies of a number of pieces made by his amanuensis John Christoph Smith. A transcript made after recordings of these two – for a long time inaccessible – clocks was published by me in 1987, but this edition did not attract the scholarly attention it deserves. It can be considered a central document for performance practice with Handel, throwing considerable light on issues of tempo and above all of ornamentation, and showing practices which are often at variance with modern habits. Even if the performance practice fixated here does not derive directly from Handel, it at least reflects London tastes from the orbit of the great composer at the peak of his career.
‘Orlando Gibbons en de Sweelinck-School’, in: Het Clavecimbel 13/2 (November 2006), 11-18.
Er is een aanwijzing in de bronnen (voor het eerst onthuld door Thurston Dart) dat Orlando Gibbons naar alle waarschijnlijkheid in het voorjaar van 1613 het Europese vasteland heeft bezocht - met name de Noordelijke Nederlanden. Waarschijnlijk heeft hij toen ook Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck ontmoet – toen op het hoogtepunt van zijn roem. Dit wordt verder ondersteund gestaafd door duidelijke aanwijzingen voor een wederzijdse stilistische beïnvloeding tussen Gibbons en Sweelinck en zijn school, zoals blijkt uit de aard van een aantal specifieke werken voor clavecimbel. Blijkbaar vormde juist het jaar 1613 een keerpunt in de ontwikkeling van Gibbons als componist.
An expanded English version of this article appeared in 2013; see above.
‘The Enigma of the stylus phantasticus and Dieterich Buxtehude’s Praeludium in G Minor (BuxWV 163)’ in: Orphei Organi Antiqui: Essays in Honor of Harald Vogel, ed. Cleveland Johnson (Seattle: Westfield Center, 2006), 107-132.
Though far from neglected by modern research, the interpretation of the so-called stylus phantasticus still appears elusive. Though it obviously played an important role in North German music of the second half of the seventeenth century, a precise assessment of its function and significance remained problematical. A renewed interpretation of the – strikingly few and in part contradictory – theoretical elucidations in connection with both the background of the Humanist ‘fantasia’ as well as the specific historic position of the (small) circle which formed the principal recipient of the stylus phantasticus leads to an interpretation which differs significantly from previous views. The term, in all likelihood coined by Johann Jakob Froberger, was decidedly retrospective in character and intent. In the circle of Hamburg organists it was however anachronistically adopted for the theoretical foundation of part of their music. Here it flourished as a compositional method for multi-section instrumental pieces (mostly for keyboard), in which the traditional concept of a rhetorical forma plays a key role. Finally, these new insights are applied to a specific work, namely Dieterich Buxtehude’s Praeludium in G minor (BuxWV 163).
‘Zum Fantasiebegriff bei Samuel Scheidt’, in: Samuel Scheidt (1587-1654) - Werk und Wirkung, ed. Konstanze Musketa and Wolfgang Ruf (Halle: Händel-Haus, 2006), 233-246.
Samuel Scheidt was as far as we know the only one among Sweelinck’s German pupils who continued the latter’s concept of the encompassing, eclectic keyboard fantasia. He thus reveals himself as a stubborn continuator of a humanistic outlook on music which at the time was already retrospective, It is striking that with one important exception all surviving fantasias can be found in the 1624 Tabulatura Nova, while for the variations and toccatas the manuscript transmission is important as well. These fantasias exhibit a systematic if not scholastic exploration of the various possibilities of the genre and at the same form a peak in Scheidts oeuvre – which corresponds with the traditionally high ambitions of the "Renaissance" fantasia. In this development, which shows the concept at its final stage, as well as in the nature of the subjects and formal models he reveals himself clearly and unambiguously as the most faithful pupil of Sweelinck.
‘Der Entstehungshintergrund der Zellerfelder Tabulaturen’, in: Concerto 207 (April/Mai 2006), 23-27.
The background of the famous Zellerfeld Tablatures (Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Universitätsbibliothek/ Calvörsche Bibliothek, Orgeltabulatur I-II), important above all as the primary source of Heinrich Scheidemann's organ music, has been a long-debated issue. The present article, which forms a pre-publication from my Scheidemann monograph, presents a summary of my fresh investigation into the matter. It demonstrates that these tablatures must have originated in Brunswick and that Caspar Calvör (1650-1725) was even more intimately connected to their history than was already known.
‘Scheidemanns "Kunstreiche manuduction auf dem Clavier". Vingerzetting en ornamentiek bij Heinrich Scheidemann’, in: Het Orgel 100/4 (September/Oktober 2004), 10-19.
A little-studied tablature with domestic keyboard music preserved in Brussels (B-Bc, MS 26.374/ii) which stands close to Heinrich Scheidemann (c.1595-1663) contains an important fingering chart, which is published here for the first time. The fingering instructions show that the ‘centre of gravity’ in the right hand is in its middle (2 3 4), while in the left hand it is ‘off-centre’ (1 2 3). The corresponding difference in feeling between the two hands is of central importance in playing the music of Sweelinck and his school. ‘Brussels’ also offers alternative fingerings in specific situations: parallel thirds do not have to be always played with 2 and 4, nor a main-note trill always with 3 4 (right hand) or 2 1 (left hand): 3 2 might be used as well. Series of four descending sixteenth notes (right hand) can be played with the usual paired fingering as well as with 4 3 2 1 or 5 4 3 2. The information from this fingering chart is supported and supplemented by several fragments of fingerings in the Scheidemann sources, some of them clearly of a professional outlook. These bits of evidence suggest that Scheidemann, on the firm basis of the principles learned from Sweelinck, varied his fingerings to achieve a widened palette of articulation, and thus are able to give us a glimpse of his much-admired ‘kunstreiche Manuduction auf dem Clavier’.
‘Ein verschollenes Weimarer Kammermusikwerk Johann Sebastian Bachs? Zur Vorgeschichte der Sonate e-Moll für Orgel (BWV 528)’, in: Bach-Jahrbuch 89 (2003), 7-36.
It has long been known that the Fourth Sonata in E minor BWV 528, which Bach entered around 1730 in his manuscript of the Six Sonatas for Organ (D-B, Mus. Ms Bach P 271), is not an original piece, and moreover appears to have been assembled from disparate sources: a cantata sinfonia and two different organ trios. The sinfonia is to be found in Cantata BWV 76 from June 1723, and the entry in the autograph score (D-B, Mus. Ms Bach P 67) has always been taken as forming a composing score along with the rest of the (hastily written) movements of this large two-part cantata. However, closer scrutiny reveals the sinfonia entry to form a revision score, and the style of the piece is indeed much older, strongly suggestive of Weimar c.1714 (particularly closely related is the sinfonia to Cantata BWV 152 from December 1714). All evidence suggests that the original instrumentation of this movement was near-identical to that of the sinfonia from BWV 76, namely oboe, viola da gamba and continuo. The formal and stylistic analysis of all three movements of BWV 528 leads to the conclusion that the initial versions of the second and third movements stem from the Weimar period as well and that the sonata was conceived as a unified, closely integrated whole. Thus, an ensemble sonata by Bach from an early period which is not particularly rich in this genre can be hypothetically revived.
‘Überlegungen zu Bachs Suite f-Moll BWV 823’, in: Bachs Claviermusik. Bericht über das 4. Dortmunder Bach-Symposion 2002, ed. Martin Geck (Dortmunder Bachforschungen, Bd. 5; Witten: Klangfarben-Verlag, 2003), 119-131.
A study of a much-neglected keyboard work by Bach, demonstrating that it is neither early nor incomplete (as has been suggested in earlier research) but rather stems from Bach’s maturity. This three-movement suite belongs to a group of pieces from c.1740 which demonstrates his fascination with the lute and lute-inspired writing as well as with the lute harpsichord.
‘New Perspectives on Lynar A1’, in: The Keyboard in Baroque Europe (for Gustav Leonhardt, on the occasion of his 75th birthday), ed. Christopher Hogwood (Cambridge, 2003), 36-66.
A study of the final part (pp. 264-331) of this large and unusually important keyboard manuscript (famous in particular because of its trustworthy Sweelinck transmission), which consists of three segments. The first segment contains a dozen pieces of English provenance – a collection which may originally have been compiled by John Bull (1562/63-1628) and via Sweelinck have reached the Sweelinck follower who penned Lynar A 1 as a whole. The second segment is made up of eight French harpsichord pieces probably from the late 1610s and offering an unique glimpse of the French harpsichord tradition in an otherwise rather obscure period. The final segment, made-up of several loose ends (Cornet, Philips, Sweelinck) confirms that the writing of the manuscript was in all probability finished by 1625. Much later, in the early 1640s, the same scribe entered a harpsichord suite on the final empty pages, which appears to be a very early trace of Froberger ’s compositional activities.
‘Dieterich Buxtehude and the Chorale Fantasia’, in: GOArt Research Report 3, ed. Sverker Jullander (Göteborg, 2003), 149-165.
After giving a more precise definition of the North German chorale fantasia – based on the many examples from the originator of the genre, Heinrich Scheidemann – Buxtehude’s significant contribution to it is established. His two full-blown chorale fantasias, Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ and Nun freut euch, lieben Christen gmein are discussed and their historical antecedents established. From this follows that they probably form his first masterpieces, written in the 1660s. Nun freut euch may have been composed on the occasion of the beginning of his tenure in St. Marien in Lübeck in 1668. The hypothesis that he was a pupil of Scheidemann in the 1650s (for which no documentary evidence has hitherto been found) is much strengthened by the results of this stylistic discussion.
‘Johann Sebastian Bach en het Luitclavecimbel’, in: Het Clavecimbel 9/2 (November 2002), 29-33.
Johann Sebastian Bach seems to have been fascinated by the lute-harpsichord throughout his life, and many of the documents concerning this vanished instrument type are directly or indirectly related to him. His so-called lute music BWV 995-1000 is on the whole as problematic with regard to the real lute as it seems inextricably bound up with the lute harpsichord. Several other pieces such as BWV 823, 876/1, 964, 968 and 1006a seem associable with this exotic keyboard instrument type as well.
‘Perspectives on John Bull's Keyboard Music after 1613’, in: XVIIe, XIXe, XXIe siècle: Bruxelles, carrefour européen de l'orgue, ed. Jean Ferrard (Brussels, 2002), 31-39.
Most of the preserved keyboard music by John Bull (1562/63-1628) dates from his English period – that is, from before 1613, in which year he had to flee because of a scandal. In the last fifteen years of his life, which he spent in the Southern Netherlands (from 1617 onwards as organist of Antwerp Cathedral), he seems to have written considerably less, and less ambitious keyboard music than before while becoming increasingly engrossed in the composition of speculative canons. The sudden emergence of Sweelinck as a major keyboard composer (who in fact was much indebted to Bull's earlier music) in the 1610s may have played a role in Bull's keyboard reticence.
‘Die Kantate "Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde" BWV 83 und die Rolle der Violine in Bachs erstem Leipziger Jahrgang’, in: Bachs erster Leipziger Kantatenjahrgang. Bericht über das 3. Dortmunder Bach-Symposion 2000, ed. Martin Geck & Siegfried Oechsle (Dortmunder Bachforschungen IV; Dortmund: Klangfarben-Verlag, 2002), 135-156.
A study of the (relatively rare) occurrence of the solo violin in Bach's first Leipzig cantata year (1723-24), concentrating on its exceptional and elaborate use in Cantata 83 for Maria Purification, “Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde”. It is virtually a latent violin concerto, probably written for some virtuoso visiting Leipzig. On stylistic grounds the Dresden scene must have formed a major influence here - which is also true for Cantata 81, "Jesus schläft, was soll ich hoffen", first performed only a few days earlier than Cantata 83 and which Bach set as a lively operatic “scena”. The famous Dresden violinist and friend of Bach, Johann Georg Pisendel, is tentatively associated with the background of these two strikingly original cantatas.
‘The Sweelinck Paradox: Researching, Analysing and Performing Sweelinck's Keyboard Music’, in: Sweelinck Studies (see under Books & Editions), 93-113.
A reconsideration of some central issues of Sweelinck's keyboard music, such as the transmission and its quality and salient features of his style. The unique tradition of writing ambitious hexachord fantasias (ranging from William Byrd in the 1560s to Gregorio Strozzi in 1687) is reviewed, Sweelinck's exceptional position within it is assessed and his Hexachord Fantasia analysed. Finally, historiography and analysis are brought in connection with performance practice.
‘Bachs "Acht Choralfughetten" – Ein unbeachtetes Leipziger Sammelwerk?’, in: Bach in Leipzig – Bach und Leipzig. Bach-Konferenz Leipzig 2000, ed. Ulrich Leisinger (Leipziger Beiträge zur Bachforschung V; Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 2002), 155-182.
Bach's chorale fughetta's BWV 696-699 and 701-704, which have been preserved solely in posthumous sources, have been hitherto much neglected. Because of their miniature format and writing for manuals only, they are usually relegated to an early period. The authenticity of Das Jesulein soll doch mein Trost BWV 702, has moreover always been questioned. However, closer scrutiny reveals that there is no reason to doubt Bach's authorship of this fughetta too. The eight pieces moreover form a liturgical cycle from Advent to New Year. Their highly condensed contrapuntal language shows all the hallmarks of Bach's late Leipzig keyboard style, and a comparison with the fughettas from Clavierübung III (1739) demonstrates that the Eight Chorale Fughettas must postdate these and thus appear to belong to Bach's Spätwerk of the 1740s.
(with Rudolf Rasch:) ‘Eine neue Quelle zu Frobergers Cembalosuiten’, in: Musik in Baden-Württemberg – Jahrbuch 2001 (Stuttgart, 2001), 133-153.
Studies a newly-discovered keyboard manuscript (D-Dl, 1-T-595), which turns out to have been written by Michael Bulyowsky (who was already known as an organist and theorist) and dated Strassbourg 1675. It is above all of prime importance for the transmission of the harpsichord suites of Johann Jacob Froberger, containing thirteen or fourteen of these in mostly exemplary texts. In addition to a considerably enriched source situation and the addition of several previously unknown (programmatic) titles, we finally have Froberger’s Suite 28 in complete format.
‘Byrd & Sweelinck: Some Cursory Notes’, in: Annual Byrd Newsletter 7 (2001), 11-20.
Discusses possible links between Byrd and Sweelinck in their quality as keyboard composers, pointing out the particular importance of the former to the latter. Includes a transcription of Byrd's Pavan & Galliard in g (Sir William Petre) in the “Sweelinckian” version of the Düben Tablature. [A Dutch translation can be found in: het Clavecimbel 12/2 (2006), 11-16]
‘De Sweelinck-overlevering in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden’ ['The Sweelinck transmission in the Southern Netherlands'], in: Orgelkunst 24 (2001), 27-36.
Sweelinck obviously stood in contact with at least two "Southern" organists, both of them English recusants: Peter Philips and John Bull. Their keyboard music largely predates that of Sweelinck, which probably did not start to be composed until after 1600, and played a vital role in the formation of his keyboard style. His keyboard music was much sought after in the Southern Netherlands, as the preserved manuscripts demonstrate; indeed, his name must be considered the dominating one in the field.
‘Scheidemann, Scheidt und die Toccata’, in: Schütz-Jahrbuch 22 (2000), 29-48.
In the first half of the seventeenth century the toccata was not only a spezialized keyboard genre, but also an almost exclusive Italian/South German affair. The large group of toccatas by Sweelinck, which are dependant on Venetian models, forms an important exception. The toccata was eschewed by most of his German pupils but can be nevertheless be found with his two most important ones, Samuel Scheidt and Heinrich Scheidemann. Apart from a few small toccatas both organists devoted a single extended essay to the genre. The Toccata super "In te Domine speravi", which Scheidt published in his 1624 Tabulatura Nova, moreover formed the springboard for Scheidemann’s popular Toccata "ad manuale duplex", which must have been composed in 1625 or 1626. Both composers arrived in their own idiosyncratic manner at a highly original development of the toccata idea, which historically however turned out to be a dead end. Only with the next generation of North German organists (Weckmann, Buxtehude, Reincken) the toccata was restored as a central compositional genre – now however taking their lead from the new affect-laden toccata type of the Frescobaldi tradition.
‘Het Auteurschap van Praeludium en Fuga in f-klein BWV 534’ [‘The Authorship of the Prelude and Fugue in F minor, BWV 534’], in: Het Orgel 96/5 (september 2000), 5-14.
In spite of its poor source situation and unusual features, the nineteenth-century attribution of the Prelude and Fugue in F minor BWV 534 to Johann Sebastian Bach was never seriously questioned until quite recently (in 1985, in an article by David Humphreys). The now generally accepted rejection from his oeuvre of course makes the authorship question acute. The stylistic position of the piece and the nature of the transmission make an attribution to Bach's eldest son Wilhelm Friedemann (1710-1784) plausible. Indeed, though unique in certain respects, several features of "the" F minor point to the style of this composer, while the peculiar quality and pathos of the whole seem to echo the improvisations of this legendary organist.
‘The Dutch 17th-Century Tradition of (Improvised) Psalm Variations’, in: GOArt Research Report 2, ed. Sverker Jullander (Göteborg, 2000), 59-77.
A discussion of the surviving repertoire of 17th-century Psalm settings from the Northern Netherlands (including a catalogue): principally those by Speuy, Sweelinck and Van Noordt but also a number of anonymous ones. The latter in particular provide us with vital information about this important tradition which existed principally in improvisatory form.
‘De Stylus phantasticus: fictie of werkelijkheid?’, in: Het Clavecimbel 6/2 (november 1999), 17-21.
Treats the background of this problematic concept, showing that it was much more limited both in scope and in spread during the Baroque period than its frequent present-day application to much baroque (keyboard) music suggests. - A considerably expanded English version of this article has published in 2006 (see above).
‘Een onbekende afbeelding van Sweelincks orgel’, in: Het Orgel 95/3 (mei 1999), 32-34 & 48.
A hitherto unknown and undated painting by Emanuel de Witte (c.1617-1692) of the interior of the Amsterdam Oude kerk, now kept in private property in the Netherlands, turns out to form an important contribution to Sweelinck iconography, showing the so far most detailed (if still only partial) depiction of the large organ there in the state as known by Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (who played it from 1577 to 1621). On basis of this state as well as comparison with other work by De Witte the painting can be dated at c.1657. An English translation has been included in the Sweelinck Studies volume (see under Books & Editions).
‘Bachs Koraalpartita "Ach, was soll ich Sünder machen"’, in: Het Orgel 95/1 (januari 1999), 15-24.
A study of a comparatively neglected but major keyboard work by Bach (BWV 770), demonstrating that his authorship is beyond question and that it forms a masterfully planned and realised variation cycle integrating several vital influences of Bach's youth. It is datable to the end of his Arnstadt period (c.1706)
‘Zur Frage des Autors der A-Dur-Toccata BWV Anh. 178’, in: Bach-Jahrbuch 84 (1998), 121-135.
Discusses a famous toccata alternately ascribed in the sources to a rather disparate trio of composers: Michelangelo Rossi, Henry Purcell and Johann Sebastian Bach. Shows that none of them can be the true author and that the nature of the transmission as well as the style of the composition strongly points to Johann Adam Reincken (?1643-1722) as the actual composer. The piece has been included in my edition of Reincken's chorale fantasias and toccatas (2005).
‘Sweelinck's Keyboard Polyphony and Scheidemann's Intavolations’, in: Proceedings of the Göteborg International Organ Academy 1994, ed. Hans Davidsson & Sverker Jullander (Göteborg, 1995), 85-97.
Having been thoroughly versed in Sweelinck’s novel approach to polyphonic keyboard composition with its emphasis on strict voice leading and integration of “line” and figuration, Scheidemann initally eschewed the (written-out) motet intavolation. However, he turned to it in the 1630s, after his own (organ) style had fully matured, and composed a remarkable collection of highly sophisticated examples. It was thus with a measure of historical awareness that he revived this obsolete genre.
‘Vater unser im Himmelreich – On Sweelinck and his German pupils’, in: From Ciconia to Sweelinck – donum natalicum Willem Elders (Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1994), 369-385.
Several problematic variation sets on the Lord’s Prayer from the Sweelinck school source circle are treated as a paradigma of the relationship between Sweelinck and three of his most important pupils: Samuel Scheidt, Heinrich Scheidemann and Jacob Praetorius. All of this material has been included in The Keyboard Music of Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck.
‘"Per Cembalo et Organo" – De Klaviermuziek van Girolamo Frescobaldi’, in: Tijdschrift voor Oude Muziek 8/3 (1993), 12-16.
An overview of Frescobaldi’s music, concentrating on his development as a keyboard composer.
‘A Froberger Miscellany’ (with Rudolf Rasch), in: The Harpsichord and its Repertoire, 1992 (see under Books & Editions), 231-269.
‘The Background to Bach's Fifth Brandenburg Concerto’, in: The Harpsichord and its Repertoire, 1992 (see under Books & Editions), 157-185.
See Online Essays (including a postscipt with new material and discussion)
‘Der Umfang des handschriftlich überlieferten Clavierwerkes von Samuel Scheidt’, in: Schütz-Jahrbuch 13 (1991), 91-123.
An attempt to establish the size and nature of Scheidt's keyboard music not found in the 1624 Tabulatura nova, including detailed discussion of matters of authenticity, transmission, style and chronology.
‘Sweelinck versus Praetorius’, in: Het Orgel 86 (1990), 279-286; Der Kirchenmusiker 41(1990), 172-180. ‘Nogmaals: De zaak Johannes Praetorius’, in: Het Orgel 87 (1991), 41-50.
Two articles which form part of a polemic with Klaus Beckmann, who boldly but in my view vainly and with increasingly tortuous arguments attempts to reattribute much of Sweelinck's keyboard music to his Hamburg pupil Johannes Praetorius.
‘De orgelkoralen van Dietrich Buxtehude’, in: Het Orgel 83 (1987), 383-395.
A classification of Buxtehude's organ chorales according to genre, discussing various formal aspects along the way.
‘Eine unbekannte Intavolierung Heinrich Scheidemanns’, in: Die Musikforschung 40 (1987), 338-345.
Discusses a hitherto unrecognized harpsichord piece by Scheidemann, hidden in the Düben Keyboard Tablature (S-Uu, Instr. Mus. i hdskr. 408) and establishes its authenticity through a comparison with his other keyboard music. The piece has been first published in my edition of Scheidemann’s complete harpsichord music.
‘Sweelinck's Opera Dubia – a Contribution to the Study of His Keyboard Music’, in: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis 36 (1986), 80-135.
Treats a number of authenticity problems in Sweelinck's keyboard music, concentrating on the tablature LyB2 (D-B, Mus. Ms. Lübbenau Lynar B 2) in particular. This article has been completely rewritten, expanded and integrated a decade later in my book The Keyboard Music of Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck.
‘De Koraalfantasie van Vincent Lübeck’, in: Het Orgel 82 (1986), 66-76 & 110-118.
A study of the magnificent fantasia on the chorale ‘Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ’ by the Stade/Hamburg organist Vincent Lübeck (1654-1740), a belated, if not the last, crowning example of the full-length Hamburg type. Investigates matters of note text and editions, form, dating, historical position and performance practice.
Awaiting publication are the following articles:
‘Towards a Canon of the Keyboard Music of John Bull’, in: Aspects of Early English Keyboard Music to c.1630, ed. David J. Smith (Ashgate Historical Keyboard Series, Farnham 2017)
The keyboard music of John Bull (1562/62-1628) forms unquestionably one of the more imposing repertoires in this field, yet at the same time it is riddled with questions of authenticity. The number of problematic pieces is almost as great as the number of safely attributed pieces. On the firm basis of a renewed evaluation of the sources a new approach to this corpus has been developed, resulting in a classification system which evolved naturally out of the very specific problems posed by Bull’s music. Problematic works and work groups are reviewed mainly from a source-critical angle, and possible attributions from the anonyma present within the Bull source circle are discussed. The resulting new catalogue consists of four categories: I. Safely attributed works (96 pieces) – II. Insecure attributions (78 pieces) – III. Works with conflicting attributions (15 pieces) – IV. Anonymous works attributable to or associable with Bull (25 pieces).
‘Johann Jacob Froberger in Dresden’, in: Schütz-Jahrbuch 39 (2017)
Sometime in the years 1649-1653, Johann Jacob Froberger was guest at the Electoral Court of Dresden and engaged in a friendly musical competition with the master student of Heinrich Schütz, Matthias Weckmann. On the basis of Johann Mattheson's report of this event, the political background, as well as musical considerations, Froberger’s visit can be quite precisely dated. After this meeting, the two virtuosos "conducted a confidential correspondence". Here, the three main directions of European keyboard music c.1650 were directly confronted: the Italian and French schools, here united in one person (Froberger), as well as the North German Sweelinck school (Weckmann). The related questions of style and compositional unity were very topical at the time, especially in relation to vocal music, and must have greatly interested Schütz as well.
‘"Hurtig mit der Faust, munter und aufgeräumt": Heinrich Scheidemann und die "Sonderspezies" Choralfantasie', in: Symposiumsbericht Hamburg 2013, ed. Ulf Grapenthin (Hamburg 2017)
Heinrich Scheidemann (c.1595-1663) can be seen as both the creator and most important master of the chorale fantasia for organ. This is an eclectic concept, combining elements of the renaissance keyboard fantasia (Sweelinck) and the Hamburg Magnificat tradition (H. Praetorius) with the possibilities of the Hamburg organ and the chorale. There do survive no less than 19 chorale- and Magnifcat-fantasias by Scheidemann, showing great creativity and a composer always open to experiment and unique formal solutions. The high point is however reached only with his pupil and successor Johann Adam Reincken, in the latters "An Wasserflussen Babylon" from 1663, the year of Scheidemann's death.
‘Johann Jacob Froberger und die frühe Clavecinistes’, in: Symposiumsbericht Wien 2016, ed. Andreas Vejvar (Wien 2017)
Many parts of Froberger's life are covered in darkness, and similarly difficult seems to be the assessment of the musical background of his remarable oeuvre. A case in point are the harpsichord suites. With the earliest datable ones, the five from the 1649 Libro Secondo, the genre already presents itself in full maturity. The real development of this remarkable concept must already have taken place in the earlier 1640s. Through a recently identified very early suite as well as a consideration of the background of Froberger's gigues, more light can now be thrown upon this question. Already Mattheson recognized the importance of the "frantzösische Lautenmanier" for this novel harpsichord style. It appears that the early "clavecinistes" - especially the young Louis Couperin - were strongly influenced by Froberger, rather than the other way around. During his Paris visits in 1652 and 1660 he showed them how to effectively transfer the language of the French lutenists to the harpsichord.
‘Eine echte Bachische Creatur: Johann Ludwig Krebs’
‘Georg Böhm's Keyboard Music: Defining the Corpus’
‘Some Observations on Bach's Organ Sonatas BWV 525-530’
‘Bach's Harpsichord Toccatas BWV 910-916’
‘Johann Sebastian Bach and the Counterfugue’
‘New Light on the Performance of Froberger’s Harpsichord Suites’
‘Dieterich Buxtehude und Johann Sebastian Bach: Neue Perspektive’
‘Dieterich Buxtehude and the Sweelinck Tradition’
‘De "Stylus phantasticus" en Dieterich Buxtehude's Orgelpraeludium in g BuxWV 149’
‘Girolamo Frescobaldi and the Netherlands’
‘Auf den Spuren von Johann Sebastian Bachs Flötenkonzerte’
Contributions in Lexicons and Handbooks
Three entries in: Handboek van de Koormuziek, ed. Jos Leussink & Jan Nuchelmans (Kampen: Kok, 2013):
‘Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck: Ab oriente venerunt Magi’: ##-##.
‘Benedictus a Sancte Josepho: Salve Regina’: ##-##.
‘Heinrich Biber: Requiem in f’: ##-##.
Three entries in: Händel-Handbuch Bd. 6: Das Händel-Lexikon, ed. Hans-Joachim Marx (Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 2011):
‘Buxtehude, Dieterich’: 149-150.
‘Musik für eine Spieluhr’: 500-502.
‘Witvogel, Gerhard Frederik’: 780.
Eight essays in: Het Sweelinck Monument - de Complete Werken, ed. Harry van der Kamp (De Complete Vocale Werken van Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck door het Gesualdo Consort), 2008-2014:
in deel I: De wereldlijke werken van Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck: 14-26.
in Deel IIa: Het Eerste Psalmboek van Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck: 24-39.
in Deel IIb: Het Tweede Psalmboek van Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck: 28-42.
in Deel IIc: Het Derde Psalmboek van Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck: 22-40.
in Deel IId: Het Vierde Psalmboek van Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck: 36-54.
in Deel III: De Cantiones sacrae van Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck: 24-40.
in Deel IVa: Sweelinck's orgel en klavecimbelwerk (I): 17-38.
in Deel IVb: Sweelinck's orgel en klavecimbelwerk (II): 15-34.
Six entries in: Lexikon der Orgel, ed. Herman J. Busch & Matthias Geuting (Laaber: Laaber Verlag, 2007)
‘Johann Christoph Bach’: 60.
‘John Bull’: 121-122.
‘Girolamo Frescobaldi’: 244-248.
‘Hieronymus, Jacob & Michael Praetorius’: 591-593.
‘Heinrich Scheidemann’: 675-677.
‘Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck’: 755-758.
Three entries in: Handbuch Orgelmusik. Komponisten – Werke – Interpretation, ed. Rudolf Faber & Philip Hartmann (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2002):
‘England bis 1660’: 149-153.
‘Niederlande, 17. Jhdt’: 208-214.
Two essays in: Een Muziekgeschiedenis der Nederlanden, ed. Louis Grijp (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2001):
‘De Vlaamse Clavecimbelbouw rond 1600’: 212-218.
‘Het Nederlandse Lied rond 1700’: 317-321.
Six entries in: 100 Componistenportretten, ed. Pay-Uun Hiu & Jolande van der Klis (Haarlem/Hilversum: Gottmer/Centrum Nederlandse Muziek, 1997); English edition: The Essential Guide to Dutch Music – 100 Composers and Their Work, ed. Jolande van der Klis (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2000):
‘Willem de Fesch’
‘Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck’
‘Jan Baptist Verrijt’
Four entries in: Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, second edition, Personenteil (Kassel & Stuttgart: Barenreiter/Metzler, 1999-2007):
‘Noordt, van’: vol. 12 (2004), 1172-1174.
‘Scheidemann, Heinrich': vol. 14 (2005), 1209-1214.
'Sweelinck': vol. 16 (2006), 339-359.
'Weckmann': vol. 17 (2007), 630-635.
Seven entries in: Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, second edition, Sachteil (Kassel & Stuttgart: Barenreiter/Metzler, 1994-1998):
‘Celler Claviertabulaturen’: vol. 2 (1995), 485-486.
‘Introitus VII. Instrumental’: vol. 4 (1996), 1123-1126.
‘Lübbenauer Clavierhandschriften’: vol. 5 (1996), 1495-1498.
‘Toccata’: vol 9 (1998), 599-611.
‘Turiner Claviertabulaturen’: vol. 9 (1998), 1046-1049.
‘Visbyer Orgeltabulatur’: vol. 9 (1998), 1732-1733.
‘Zellerfelder Orgeltabulaturen’: vol. 9 (1998), 2278-2280.